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Glossary print
 

Arthritis                        
Inflammation of one or more joints causing pain and destruction of the bone and surrounded tissue

Autoimmune disease     
Malfunction of the immune system. Own tissue is mistakenly recognised as foreign resulting in an attack against the own cells. In arthritis, mainly cells in an around a joint are affected resulting in an inflammation of this body area.

Balneotherapy               
Treatment of a disease by bathing using e.g. cold and hot water

Bioavailability                
The fraction of an administered drug that actually reaches the blood circulation.

Cartilage                       
The cell layer covering a bone end in a joint. Cartilage cells produce a firm gel-like ground substance which protects the bone ends from abrasion when gliding over each other.

Cell proliferation             
Cell reproduction, meaning how many cells are newly produced in a certain period of time

Chronic                         
here: A persistent and slowly developing disease

Cytokines                     
Signal proteins particularly important in the immune response

Degenerative                 
A reduction of joint function by abrasion, aging, or a false or non-usage of a joint

DMARDs                      
Disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs. Conventional DMARDs are methotrexate, sulfasalazine, azathioprine, gold, cyclosporine, or hydroxychloroquine. These drugs are able to decelerate the destruction of a joint.

Enthesitis                     
Inflammation of an enthesis, which is the point at which a tendon inserts into bone

Gastro-intestinal            
Regarding the digestive tract

Gene                            
Carrier of genetic information (DNA)

Immune system            
Body's defence system which detects invaders such as viruses or bacteria and initiates the immune reaction to destroy them

Intramuscular                
Injection of a drug into a muscle, usually into a big muscle (e.g. thigh), a parenteral route of administration

Intravenous                   
Injection of a drug into a vein, a parenteral route of administration

Lesion                          
Abnormal skin tissue found for example in patients with psoriasis (psoriatic lesions or plaques)

MRI                              
Magnetic resonance imaging. Examination method to image soft tissue like the synovia. By using this method early inflammations can be detected before erosions of cartilage and bone occur.

NSAIDs                        
Non-steroidal anti-rheumatic drugs. Prominent examples are acetyl salicylic acid, ibuprofen, or diclofenac which can help to relieve pain but have no influence on the progress of joint destruction.

Oligoarticular                 
Or pauciarticular, meaning that a few joints are affected.

Oral                              
Through the mouth

Polyarthritis                  
Inflammation of many joints; also a synonym for rheumatoid arthritis

Progressive course        
The severity of disease activity may gradually increase.

Remission                    
The state of absence of disease activity in a chronic disease

Synovial membrane       
Inner layer of a joint capsule producing the joint fluid which fills the space between the bones.

Systemic                      
here: affecting the whole body

T lymphocyte                
Or T cell. T lymphocyte are specialised white blood cells which play an important role in the immune response and thus in the defence against invaders like bacteria or viruses.

Ultrasonic examination   
Examination method to image soft tissue, increased synovial fluid in the joints, etc.

X-ray                            
An aggressive electromagnetic radiation with a very short wavelength. X-rays are primarily used for diagnostic radiography and can visualise for example erosions at the bones.